People in Nepal is a melting pot of many peoples. The population of approximately twenty two million is made up of a variety of races living by different means, wearing diverse costumes and speaking many languages and dialects. They live in widely varied environmental circumstances from the low, nearly sea level plains at the border of India, northward through the middle hills, valleys and up to the flanks of the great Himalayan range where there are settlements at altitudes up to 4800m. Agricultural practices are consequently wide ranging as is the approach and cultural conventions. Country offers such variety that the visitor may skill any lifestyle from the stone age. The high Himalayan settlements of Tibetan speaking people are found hovering insecurely on mountain ledges and slopes. Existence here is a fragile equilibrium of solid work and community merrymaking, tempered by a society intensely steeped in ancient spiritual beliefs. The best known of the high mountain peoples are the Sherpas who populate the central and eastern regions of Nepal. The Sherpas have easy access to Bhot (Tibet) for business and social communication and consequently Tibetan authority on their culture and society remains distinct. The middle hills are settled by diverse Tibeto Burman, Indo-Aryan speaking hill and valley people, for example the Brahmins, Chettris and Newars. While the Brahmins and Chettris are generally distributed through out the country, the Newars are mostly concentrated in the Katmandu Valley and other towns.
The population of Nepal is estimated at 29,391,883 people in July 2011, with a population growth rate of 1.596% and a median age of 21.6 years. Female middle age is likely at 22.5 years and male median age at 20.7 years. Only 4.4% of the population are estimated to be more than 65 years old, comprising 681,252 females and 597,628 males, whereas 61.1% of the population is between 15 and 64 years old, and 34.6% is estimated at younger than 14 years. High Himalaya defrayal of Tibetan speaking people is found perched unsteadily on mountain ledges and slopes. Life here is delicate balance of hard work and social delight, temper by a culture deeply steep in antique spiritual society. Birth rate is estimated at 22.17 births/1,000 population with an infant mortality rate at 44.54 deaths per 1,000 live births. Life expectancy at birth is estimated at 67.44 years for females and 64.94 years for males. Death rate is estimated at 681 deaths per 100,000 people. The best known of the high mountain peoples are the Sherpas who inhabit the central and eastern regions of Nepal. Net migration rate is estimated at 61 migrants per 100,000 people. According to 2001 census, only 48.6% of total population is literate, of which 62.7% are male and 34.9% are female. The Rais, Limbus, Tamangs, Magars, Sunwars, Jirels, Gurungs, Thakalis and Chepangs people who live in the mountain areas of Nepal. Burman speaking mongoloid people are establish in the middle hills. The Dun valleys, lowland Terai are settled by people such as the Brahmins, Rajputs, Tharus, Danwars, Majhis, Darais, Rajbansis, Statars, dhimals and Dhangars. However Nepal is a complex range of cultural groups held jointly by their truth to ancient traditions and by their dreams of peaceful coexistent and holy tolerance in the nation of Nepal.